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Israel Facilities Agriculture - New directions for future agriculture

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Update time : 2017-09-20 17:42:02
In the face of the limited per capita arable land resources, regional natural irrigation and lack of light, agricultural labor tends to aging and other adverse effects, the Netherlands, Japan and Israel through strengthening policy support, technology support, industry support, interest linkage and other initiatives to accelerate development Glass greenhouse, plant factory, micro-drip irrigation and other facilities of horticultural technology as the focus of the direction of the modern facilities of agriculture for the country's agricultural production from the unfavorable conditions of production constraints to achieve sustainable development to explore a new way, but also for their modern agriculture quality and efficiency, To achieve intensive and efficient development has added new impetus, successfully out of a resource endowment is not dominant areas of development of competitive modern agriculture, the real path. From the Netherlands, Japan and Israel facilities, agricultural development experience, to promote China's facilities and agriculture to improve quality and efficiency, to further strengthen the scientific and technological support, efforts to improve and enhance financial and other supporting services.

The Netherlands, Japan and Israel are the three leading countries in today's world facility agriculture development. The glass greenhouse in the Netherlands is one of the most important branches of the World Facility for Agricultural Technology. Japan in the small greenhouse machinery, plant plant precision control and other aspects of the technology praised the world. Israel is located in the desert zone with efficient irrigation of micro-drip irrigation technology world-renowned.

Facilities of agriculture in Israel

Israel is not only a very limited area of ​​arable land, rainfall is also extremely scarce. The average annual rainfall in the northern region is 800 millimeters, and the annual rainfall in the southern desert is only 25 millimeters, and the annual evaporation is up to 1400mm and 2800mm respectively. From 1948 to the beginning of the year, the agricultural output of Israel increased by 12 times, and the consumption of agricultural water increased by only 3 times, and the value of land production per unit area was tripled by constant price, by means of vigorously developing efficient and intensive modern facilities. Water production output increased by 5 times, a full-time agricultural workers increased from 17 to 113 people, creating a desert agricultural miracle.

In 2013, the Israeli agricultural sector created agricultural output of 30 billion shekels, accounting for 2.5% of its GDP, employing 2% of the total labor force. In 2010, the Israeli horticultural area was 26,000 hectares. Among them, the greenhouse area of ​​about 11,000 hectares, mainly for the production of fresh cut flowers; greenhouse area of ​​15,000 hectares, for the cultivation of tomatoes, cucumbers and sweet pepper and other vegetable crops. Vegetable farm size of about 4-6 hectares, flower farm scale in about 8 hectares. Agricultural exports amounted to 2.13 billion US dollars, more than 60% of the facilities of agriculture to provide fresh products.

The efficient irrigation system is the most significant feature of the horticultural facilities in Israel. The drip irrigation system is located in the main agricultural production areas of the country. More than 60% of the farmland, 100% of the orchards, green areas and vegetable plants are used drip irrigation technology, irrigation water utilization Up to 95%. Approximately 25% of the Israeli greenhouses use soilless cultivation; through the use of water and fertilizer integration, recycling of water and other facilities, horticultural technology measures, the Israeli facilities agriculture not only than ordinary facilities can save an average of 30% -40% of water and fertilizer, Precision fertilization also significantly increased the yield of agricultural products. Israel facilities Gardening cotton, citrus, tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber, eggplant and other yields are top of the world, tomatoes, sweet pepper quarterly yield of 85-100 tons per hectare, tomato yield per plant is nearly 10 times The

(A) strong support of government policies

Mainly through the change in investment factors relative to the price and provide two aspects of industry services to promote the development of agricultural facilities. In terms of changing the relative prices of input factors, government policy has focused on reducing the barriers to pre-entry of facility agriculture and guiding the upgrading of technology at the industry level. In the provision of industry public services, government policy is mainly focused on strengthening the market development efforts, strengthening the facilities and agricultural technology supply and demand convergence, promotion and standards.

(B) strong support for the development of science and technology

Mainly in the key common technology, materials and technology to increase research and development efforts. Japan and Israel in the field of facilities and agricultural research each year a lot of manpower and material resources. The annual expenditure of agricultural research by the Government of Israel accounts for 3% of the agricultural output. The Agricultural Research Group under the Ministry of Rural Development is the most important government research institution in the country. There are 200 agricultural scientists, 340 engineers and technicians, and 250 Graduates work with postdoctoral researchers at different research institutes. In addition to government research institutions, Israel has more than 3,500 high-tech companies, mainly engaged in materials, chemicals, electronics, genes, cells, bio-engineering research. In the most well-known agricultural irrigation sector, Israel has developed a range of irrigation solutions for different environments, a variety of sensor facilities, etc., for the harsh conditions of poor development of agricultural facilities to provide strong support.

(C) supporting the strong complement of industry

The Netherlands, Japan and Israel are not only internationally competitive in the production of agricultural agricultural products, but also in the global leading position in breeding industry such as breeding and nursery, mechanical facilities, market circulation, logistics and distribution. In Israel, there are technical 
research services, the vegetable, fruit shape, taste, nutrition and other elements of careful study and distinction, to guide farmers to distinguish between standard sales. Israel's breeding and breeding, irrigation equipment and other ancillary industries are also very developed. In recent years, Israel has exported more than $ 2 billion in annual facilities for horticultural equipment and technical services and $ 1.5 billion in vegetable seeds.

(4) the protection of the interests of farmers cooperation

The rapid development of agriculture in the three countries should also be attributed to the improvement of farmer cooperation. There are three types of cooperative organizations in Israel, namely, Kibbutz, Moshev, Mosha, the degree of cooperation and the tightness of the three groups of organizations, but all belong to the farmers' own cooperative organizations, farmers are responsible for planting and breeding management , Community public goods, purchase and sale of agricultural products, agricultural services, etc. by the cooperative organization.

From the experience of the Netherlands, Japan and Israel, facility agriculture has a unique advantage in improving resource efficiency and enhancing agricultural output efficiency and competitiveness.